3D Printing Handbook

Learn about additive manufacturing and 3D print rapid prototyping with this useful guide. This guide explains the history and different types of 3d printing. Learn how to choose the best 3d printing process for your project. Understand how partnering with TTH will simplify the additive manufacturing process for you. The Technology House is a leader … Continue reading “3D Printing Handbook”

Learn about additive manufacturing and 3D print rapid prototyping with this useful guide. This guide explains the history and different types of 3d printing. Learn how to choose the best 3d printing process for your project. Understand how partnering with TTH will simplify the additive manufacturing process for you.

The Technology House is a leader in product development utilizing engineering and rapid prototyping services of 3D printing to provide concept design to prototype model for all industries. TTH can scale up from prototype to production with Additive Manufacturing, Cast Urethane Molding, Injection Molding and CNC Machining for low volume production.

Sea Air Space Machining & Molding (SAS), a sister company to TTH, is a production contract manufacturer providing ISO certified components and assemblies for the Aerospace, Medical and other industries using Additive Manufacturing, Cast Urethane Molding, Injection Molding, EDM Machining and CNC Machining, specifically high speed 5-Axis CNC Milling.

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Other types of modeling

From the course:Learning 3D Printing

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Theres never been a better time to try 3D printing. This course draws a roadmap for getting started with 3D printing (aka additive manufacturing), from choosing a printer to learning about 3D modeling. After surveying a variety of commercial 3D printing technologies (filament-based, laser sintering, and more), author Kacie Hultgren walks you step-by-step through a variety of 3D design tools, including 3D modeling and 3D scanning. Youll also learn how to repair designs so theyre ready to print, with netfabb Studio, a 3D printing suite. This is a great course for both 3D printing novices as well as designers with existing modeling skills that want to enter the 3D printing marketplace.

Kacie Hultgren is a multidisciplinary designer, focused on set design for live performance.

Her experiments using early DIY desktop 3D printers for scale model building led to an online following in the 3D printing community, where she posts under the handle PrettySmallThings. She is passionate about teaching others to use digital tools and hardware to augment traditional craft and bring their ideas to life in three dimensions. Kacie lives in New York City. You can find her on Twitter: @KacieHultgren.

Solid modeling and mesh modeling are two of the big 3D categories in 3D design, but its not the whole story. Theres quite a bit of variation within these two methods, and its common for pro-software packages to incorporate more than one modeling style. There are couple other types I want you to be aware of. Parametric design is another modeling option youll encounter. Parametric modelers let you set up a design with a set of rules. A simple example would be a wheel. There are a couple important parameters. The outside diameter, the thickness of the tire, the number of spokes, and the size of the hub change the variables and create multiple variations of your design. Generative design works in a similar way. Instead of combining shapes to create a design, you use programming languages or math algorithms. There are also a number of graphical interfaces to help you get started with this type of design if you dont have a programming background. Project Shapeshift is one of those

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2. Introducing 3D Printing Technology

2. Introducing 3D Printing Technology

Introducing filament-based printers

Creating a design with solid modeling

Performing an automatic repair in netfabb Studio

Performing a manual repair in netfabb Studio

Learn the most in-demand business, tech and creative skills from industry experts.

3D Printing Powder Market By Type (Metal Plastic Ceramics) By End User (Aerospace Defense Automotive Medical Dental) Global Forecast to 2021

3D Printing Powder Market, By Type (Metal, Plastic, Ceramics), By End User (Aerospace & Defense, Automotive, Medical & Dental) Global Forecast to 2021

The global consumption of 3D printing powders, along with their end products, has witnessed a stable growth in the past few years and this growth is estimated to scale up in the next five years due to increased number of technological developments taking place in the 3D printing market.

Important patents for powder-based laser sintering technology, which is one of the cheapest technologies that uses metal powders to produce durable products, have expired in 2014. With the expiry of these key patents, the powder-based laser sintering technology will be accessible to many medium and small-scale industries, subsequently leading to increase in demand for powder-based printers. Manufacturers in powder metallurgy industry are likely to benefit the most, from these developments.

The demand for titanium, steel, aluminum, and cobalt-chrome alloy powders is expected to rise by 22.4% within the next five years due to increasing adoption of 3D printing in the manufacturing of critical components used in the automobile and aerospace industries. These powders are highly recyclable and offer superior quality and durability as compared to other materials. This has led to growing preference for powder-based printers as compared to plastics and ceramic-based printers. These powder-based printers save time as well as cost.

Manufacturers, who deal in powder metallurgy, are testing different powder materials along with their safety standards so as to ensure that these powders are used in number of applications, such as printing entire aircraft engine using 3D printing technology, in the coming years.

This report covers the competitive scenario of the top players in the global 3D printing powder market, which has been discussed in detail. The report has also profiled leading players of this market along with their recent developments and other strategic industry-related activities. The key players operating in this market are Sandvik Materials Technology (Sweden), GKN Hoeganaes (U.S.), Carpenter Technology Corporation (U.S.), LPW Technology Ltd. (U.K.), Arcam AB (Sweden), and Erasteel Kloster AB (Sweden), among others.

To know about the assumptions considered for the study, Download thePDF Brochure.

This research report categorizes the global market for 3D printing powder on the basis of applications in the end user industries, type, and geography. It also provides forecasts for volume and value, and analyzes trends in each of the submarkets.

Global 3D Printing Powder Market, By End User:

Global 3D Printing Powder Market, By Type

Global 3D Printing Powder Market, By Geography:

The global 3D printing powder market is expected to grow at a rapid pace in the next five years owing to a number of technological as well as new product developments. The market is estimated to be valued at $213.3 million in 2015, at a CAGR of 24.4%.

2Research Methodology(Page No. – 14)

2.1 Integrated Ecosystem Of Global 3d Printing Powder Market

2.2 Arriving At The Global 3d Printing Powder Market Size

4.2 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Comparison With Parent Market

5Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application(Page No. – 30)

5.2 3d Printing Powder in Aerospace & Defense, By Geography

5.3 3d Printing Powder in Automotive, By Geography

5.4 3d Printing Powder in Medical & Dental, By Geography

6Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type(Page No. – 40)

6.2 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, Type Comparison With Powder Market

6.3 Metal 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography

6.4 Plastic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography

6.5 Ceramic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography

6.6 Sneak View: Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type

7Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography(Page No. – 51)

7.2 North America 3d Printing Powder Market

7.2.1 North America 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application

7.2.2 North America 3d Printing Powder Market, By Types

7.3 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market

7.3.1 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application

7.3.2 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market, By Types

7.4 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market

7.4.1 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application

7.4.2 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market, By Types

7.5.1 Row 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application

7.5.2 Row 3d Printing Powder Market, By Types

8Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Competitive Landscape(Page No. – 76)

9Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Company(Page No. – 79)

9.2 Carpenter Technology Corporation

9.10.3 Product And Service Offerings

10.3 Introducing RT: Real Time Market intelligence

Table 1 Global 3d Printing Powder Peer Market Size, 2014 (Usd Mn)

Table 2 Global 3d Printing Powder Application Market, 2014 (T)

Table 3 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Comparison With Parent Market, 2013 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 4 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Comparison With Parent Market, 2013 2019 (T)

Table 5 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Drivers And Inhibitors

Table 6 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 7 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2013 – 2019 (T)

Table 8 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 9 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography,2013-2019 (T)

Table 10 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 11 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013 – 2019 (T)

Table 12 3d Printing Powder In Aerospace & Defense, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 13 3d Printing Powder In Aerospace & Defense, By Geography, 2013- 2019 (T)

Table 14 3d Printing Powder Market In Automotive, By Geography, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 15 3d Printing Powder In Automotive, By Geography, 2013- 2019 (T)

Table 16 3d Printing Powder In Medical & Dental, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 17 3d Printing Powder In Medical & Dental, By Geography, 2013- 2019 (T)

Table 18 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 19 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2013 – 2019 (T)

Table 20 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Type Comparison With Powder Market, 20132019 (Usd Mn)

Table 21 Metal 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 20132019 (Usd Mn)

Table 22 Metal 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 20132019 (T)

Table 23 Plastic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 24 Plastic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (T)

Table 25 Ceramic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography,2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 26 Ceramic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (T)

Table 27 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 28 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (T)

Table 29 North America 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 30 North America 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (T)

Table 31 North America 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2014 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 32 North America 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2014 – 2019 (T)

Table 33 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 34 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (T)

Table 35 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2012 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 36 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2012 – 2019 (T)

Table 37 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 38 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (T)

Table 39 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2012 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 40 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2012 – 2019 (T)

Table 41 Row 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 42 Row 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (T)

Table 43 Row 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Table 44 Row 3d Printing Powder Market, By Type, 2013 – 2019 (T)

Table 45 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Mergers, Acquisitions & Partnership

Table 46 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: New Product Developments

Table 47 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Investments

Figure 1 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Segmentation & Coverage

Figure 2 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Integrated Ecosystem

Figure 7 Global 3d Printing Powder Market Snapshot

Figure 8 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Growth Aspects

Figure 9 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Parent Market Comparision

Figure 10 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Key Types, 2014 Vs 2019

Figure 11 Printing Powder Types, By Geography, 2014 (Usd Mn)

Figure 12 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Growth Analysis, By Type, 20142019 (%)

Figure 13 3d Printing Powder : Application Market Scenario

Figure 14 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2014 & 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 15 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2014 & 2019 (T)

Figure 16 3d Printing Powder Market In Aerospace & Defense, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 17 3d Printing Powder Market In Automotive, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 18 3d Printing Powder In Medical & Dental, By Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 19 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Key Types, 2014 & 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 20 Global 3d Printing Powder Market, By Key Types, 2014 & 2019 (T)

Figure 21 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Type Comparison With Powder Market, 20132019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 22 Metal 3d Printing Powder Market, By Key Geography, 20132019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 23 Plastic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Key Geography, 2013 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 24 Ceramic 3d Printing Powder Market, By Key Geography, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 25 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Growth Analysis, By Geography, 2014-2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 26 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Growth Analysis, By Geography, 2014-2019 (T)

Figure 27 North America 3d Printing Powder Market Overview, 2014 & 2019 (%)

Figure 28 North America 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 29 North America 3d Printing Powder Market: Key Application Snapshot

Figure 30 North America 3d Printing Powder Market , By Types, 2014 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 31 North America 3d Printing Powder Market Share, By Type, 2014-2019 (%)

Figure 32 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market Overview, 2014 & 2019 (%)

Figure 33 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2013-2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 34 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market: Key Application Snapshot

Figure 35 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market , By Types, 2012 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 36 Asia-Pacific 3d Printing Powder Market Share, By Type, 2014-2019 (%)

Figure 37 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market Overview, 2014 & 2019 (%)

Figure 38 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2012-2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 39 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market: Key Application Snapshot

Figure 40 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market , By Types, 2012 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 41 Europe 3d Printing Powder Market Share, By Type, 2014-2019 (%)

Figure 42 Row 3d Printing Powder Market Overview, 2014 & 2019 (%)

Figure 43 Row 3d Printing Powder Market, By Application, 2012-2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 44 Row 3d Printing Powder Market: Key Application Snapshot

Figure 45 Row 3d Printing Powder Market , By Types, 2012 – 2019 (Usd Mn)

Figure 46 Row 3d Printing Powder Market Share, By Type, 2014-2019 (%)

Figure 47 Global 3d Printing Powder Market: Industry Coverage, 2014

Figure 48 Carpenter Technology Corp: Revenue Mix, 2013 (%)

Figure 49 Arcam Ab, Sales Mix 2014 (%)

Figure 50 Hoganas Ab Revenue Mix, 2012 (%

3D printing or additive manufacturing is mainly employed in aerospace & defense industry, which requires much precision and quality products. Powder based printed products are widely accepted by these industries due to their high compressibility and durability. Atomized metal powders are used for these applications. The second-largest user of 3D printing is the automotive industry. Manufacturers are utilizing 3D printing technology to optimize automobile production lines, as it helps save time and prevent cost overruns. Similarly, 3D printing is a boon for the medical & dental industry as the technology is used for bone implants, dental implants, and surgical operations.

Experiments are going on to use 3D printing technology in the manufacture of customized surgical tools and medical devices. Titanium powders have been successfully used to 3D print human skull. Medical practitioners and physicians are using the technology to perform new surgeries which were previously not possible with traditional devices. The increasing product basket for different powder based materials have contributed to the growth of this industry.

The growth of the global 3D printing powder market is primarily triggered by the expiry of key patents for powder based additive manufacturing in the year 2014. The expiry of these patents will allow many new players to venture into emerging applications for 3D printing. Development of 3D printing technology had been confined to North America and Europe due to restrictive knowledge transfer and key patents held by major companies present in these region. However, 3D printing technologies have been slowly moving into the manufacturing sector of major countries in Asia-Pacific region. This study highlights important developments in Asia-Pacific region which will steer the demand for 3D printing powders in the next five years.

There is a growing demand for powder based printing across different industries & regions. However, high technology costs prevent access to this technology. With the expiry of technology patents, this technology has now become accessible to many industries.

This report covers the global 3D printing powder market in major geographical regions including North America, Asia-Pacific, Europe, and Rest of the World. It analyzes the global 3D printing powder market and its trends with respect to the three major types of 3D printing powders: metal powder, plastic powder, and ceramic powder. Recent technological developments have opened up the market for powder based materials for 3D printing. The value of the global 3D printing powder market is estimated to be USD 265.5 million in 2016 and is expected to cross USD 700 million mark within 5 years, at a CAGR of 24.4%.

The European region is one of the global manufacturing and commercial hub for powder metallurgy manufacturers. As prices of powder based technology depreciate over the years, the demand for 3D printing powders will rise. Major companies are investing on new and specialized products to meet the demands from additive manufacturing. Easy availability of cheaper powders will be a major factor that will drive the growth of the market.

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3D Printing Powder – Europe and 3D Printing Plastics, 3D…

This report covers the competitive scenario of the top players in the North America 3D printing powder market, which has been discussed in detail. The report has also profiled leading players of this market along with their recent developments and other strategic industry-related activities. The key players operating in the North America 3D printing powder market are GKN Hoeganaes Corporation (U.S.), Carpenter Technology Corporation (U.S), ExOne(U.S), Advanced Powders & Coatings (Canada) and others.

Types of effects

Professional 3D Lenticular Printing Software Training, Plastics and Services

The flip effect combines two or more very different images. The images change as the angle of observation changes.

The best lenses for the flip effect are those that are designed with a relatively large viewing angle. With this, the observer can easily see the original images since small movements do not produce a jump in the image. Only large movements by the observer or the printed material cause the jump from one image to the other.

The angle of observation from which the same image is seen is of medium size. Normally both eyes see the same image at the same time but small movements by the observer or the printed material cause a jump to the next image in the sequence.

The layered 3D effect consists of creating an illusion of depth from various independent objects separated in layers. It is an easy technique to perform, which usually converts it into the gateway for new users.

Lenticular prints with 3D effect allow each eye to see a different image. Due to the ability of stereoscopic vision of human being, the brain is able to integrate both images to create a three-dimensional illusion without the need for special glasses.

Volumetric 3D techniques add depth and relief sensations impossible to achieve through other alternatives. The conversion of 2D images to 3D performed with this system achieves a high degree of realism.

The possibilities of lenticular technology are used to their greatest extent in 3D images that incorporate flip effects. The results achieved with this format have a tremendous visual impact on the observer.

In the following examples notice how certain objects change shape or color in order to enhance the 3D effect.

Our software is complete, easy to use, stable, powerful and robust.

Imagiam provides a scalable multiplatform solution for creating and printing lenticular images with 3D effect. Imagiam is a leading and recognized lenticular solution that is used by the major offset printer manufacturers Heidelberg, KBA, Presstek and large format printer manufacturers FujiFilm Europe, Oc, Gandinnovations, HP in many of their Demo Centers around the world. Imagiam has satisfied customers in more than 45 countries. The solution is easy to use and is considered the fastest in the market.

Polyurethane Meet 3D Printing

3D printing makes prototyping wonderful. But what do you do when your plastics of choice just arent strong enough? For [Michael Memeteau], the answer was to combine thestrength of a vacuum-poured polyurethane part with the ease of 3D-printed molds. The write-up is a fantastic walk through of a particular problem and all of the false steps along the way to a solution.

The prototype is a connected scale for LPG canisters, so the frame would have to support 80 kg and survive an outdoor environment. Lego or MDF lattice were considered and abandoned as options early on. 3D printing at 100% infill might have worked, but because of the frames size, it would have to be assembled in pieces and took far too long anyway.

The next approach was to make a mold with the 3D printer and pour the chosen polyurethane resin in, but a simple hollow mold didnt work because the polyurethane heats as it cures. The combined weight and heat deformed the PLA mold. Worse, their polyurethane of choice was viscous and cured too quickly.

The solution, in the end, was a PET filament that deforms less with heat, clever choice of internal support structures to hold the stress in while being permeable, and finally pouring the polyurethane in a vacuum bag to help it fill and degas. The 3D-printed hull is part of the final product, but the strength comes from the polyurethane.

Mold-making is one of the killer apps of 3D printing. Weve seen 3D prints used as molds forspin-casting hollow parts, and used as asacrificial shell for otherwise epoxy parts. But for really complex shapes, strength, and ease of fabrication, we have to say that [Michael]s approach looks promising.

Just going to leave this here. Its a fantastic resource for thermoset urethane mold work.

Toxic catalysts: minutiae amounts of harmful organomercury salts, such as phenylmercuric neodecanoate, were found to be excellent, highly selective catalysts for polyurethanes; less concerning but still somewhat nasty tin(IV) compounds (e.g., dibutyltin dilaurate) offered some hard-to-replicate benefits, too. Needless to say, you probably want to avoid unnecessary risks. Such catalysts are largely phased out in favor of compounds of zinc, bismuth, tin(II), titanium, aluminum, and so on but you can occasionally find them in products available in some markets (for example, Smooth-On, BJB, Alumilite, and Freeman still use them frequently).

Any updates on the catalysts though or how to find mercury salt free ones?

I think the EU has restrictions on some stuff related to polyurethane, pollution and fear of exposure to the public I think?

Mold-making is one of the killer apps of 3D printing.

Limitations of 3D printing make that so.

Out of curiosity, why dont 3D prints (FDM Im assuming?) work well for mold-making? Is temperature-deformation the main problem, or something else?

Depends on what you are trying to mold into and with. Pewter, RTV silicone, urethane, brass, steel and others all react differently and some are friendly to lower cost 3D printers and some quite simply will not work at all.

Different materials you might want to cast with have different densities, temperatures, expansion rates, shrinkage, etc. Not all 3D prints are the same and some are better suited to some materials and geometries. Additionally, certain things can be accommodated by adjusting printing parameters. Increasing wall thickness to offset potential deformation for example. Some things you can use sacrificial prints with to make one off casts. Some printers can do some types of metal casting even, assuming you use the right printing material and the right metals. There was an article here about this a few days ago. It varies considerably as to what you are trying to cast (and the resolution you need) as to what you should consider starting with.

You can mold items that have been 3D printed and even do limited but direct injection mold runs with some types of 3D prints. You just have to use the right type of printing material and printer for the process you are trying to do is all. There is no one size fits all unfortunately as there are many different types of variables involved.

FDM specifically is fairly low resolution, fairly low strength and tends not to be watertight without further post treatment. Certain types of molds are simply harder to do with FDM as well, mostly because of the feature limitations and lack of support material.

If youre intending to make a reusable FDM printed mold, the rough surface texture either needs to be smoothed, or attention needs to be paid to draft angles and other features to avoid locking the casting into the mold.

Coat with resin, something very different than what will be used for the castings. Dont coat with urethane to make urethane castings. You also must watch out for cure inhibition between materials. In some cases the inhibition is one way ie material A will be inhibited from curing in contact with cured material B, but not the other way. Platinum and Tin cure silicones are like that. Cured Tin inhibits Platinum but cured Platinum doesnt inhibit Tin. That makes it possible to glue and repair Platinum cure RTV molds using ordinary clear GE Silicone II caulking. Freshly cured polyester resin will inhibit Platinum RTV. It needs to age quite a while before it stops doing that.

Coat with paint. Coat with Future (or similar) acrylic floor polish. Best to test for cure inhibition. Enamel paints can inhibit Platinum RTV while acrylic lacquer doesnt.

Interesting, thanks both for the replies!

3D-printing the part using any filament, then casting the mold from silicone and then PU casting using that mold, works great. The only issue may be the elasticity of the silicone causing low precision on bigger casts but you can buy many different silicone types with different stiffness.

Totally agree but dimensional accuracy wasnt a special requirement here, but the ability to change the design from one version to the next has worked great for us (especially when the original supplier told us that the first batch of load cell was the end of a discontinued serie!). The cost of silicone for such a large piece was also something that made us creative.

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How to Export CAD files for 3D Printing

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Using Press Fits in Your Assemblies

How to Conduct a Tolerance Analysis

Using Engineering Analysis for Design

Best Fasteners for 3D Printed Parts

Options for 3D Printing Clear Parts

Recommended Wall Thickness for 3D Printing

How to Choose the Best 3D Printing Material

Ultimate Guide to Finishing 3D Printed Parts

When to Switch from 3D Printing to CNC

9 Tips for Better Engineering Drawings

The Fundamentals of Hardware Assembly

4 Essential Tools for Successful DfA

Secrets From a Factory Assembly Line

How to Design Self-Locating, Self-Fixturing Assemblies

Pre-Production Hardware Testing Methods

Hardware Testing Guide: Mass Production

How to Practice Creativity: Tools to Get Started

Fictiv Guide to Strategic Hardware Product R&D

How to Create a Product Requirements Document

How to Select & Source the Right Materials

Lessons from Handground on Crowdsourcing Design

Lessons from Lockitron on Simple Product Design

On Designing for Experience, Not Disruption

How to Communicate Color, Material, & Finish

Crash Course in Consumer Electronics Certifications

Maximize the Impact of Your Prototypes

Guide to Patents for Hardware Products

Applications of Human-Centered Design

Guide to Ribs & Gussets for 3D Printed Parts

Design for Disassembly in Electronics

Fillets: When to Use Em, When to Lose Em

Helpful Design Constraints Vs Over-Constraints

How to Export CAD files for 3D Printing

3 Steps to Go From Digital to Physical

How to Fix Common Surface Modeling Issues

How to Setup Files for Multimaterial Printing

Springs Part 1: Types and Applications

Springs Part 2: Sourcing Considerations

Using Press Fits in Your Assemblies

How to Conduct a Tolerance Analysis

Using Engineering Analysis for Design

Best Fasteners for 3D Printed Parts

Options for 3D Printing Clear Parts

Recommended Wall Thickness for 3D Printing

How to Choose the Best 3D Printing Material

Ultimate Guide to Finishing 3D Printed Parts

When to Switch from 3D Printing to CNC

9 Tips for Better Engineering Drawings

The Fundamentals of Hardware Assembly

4 Essential Tools for Successful DfA

Secrets From a Factory Assembly Line

How to Design Self-Locating, Self-Fixturing Assemblies

Pre-Production Hardware Testing Methods

Hardware Testing Guide: Mass Production

There are three different types of digital files, broadly speaking: ones for printing, ones for modeling, and ones for 2D drawings. In order to produce a physical part, a 3D printer requires a specific file type. Known as a mesh model, the most common file type for 3D printing is called STereoLithography, or STL.

To learn more about how to export 3D files for 3D Printing, check outthis post in the Hardware Guide.

.STL:STL (STereoLithography) is a file format native to the stereolithography CAD software created by 3D Systems. STL is also known as Standard Tessellation Language. This file format is supported by many other software packages; it is widely used for rapid prototyping and computer-aided manufacturing. STL files describe only the surface geometry of a three-dimensional object without any representation of color, texture or other common CAD model attributes. An STL file describes a raw unstructured triangulated surface by geometries located within a standard Cartesian coordinate system. STL coordinates must be positive numbers, there is no scale information, and the units are arbitrary. All of these facets enable slicing software to interpret the models and produce .gcode files for 3D printer host software.

Exporting an STL file for printing is one of the first steps in producing a 3D model on a 3D printer. Many programs capable of designing 3D models are also capable of exporting or saving those models as .stl files, although occasionally it is necessary to import the models into a more robust software that offers .stl as a final export option.

.AMF:This open standard is used for describing objects to be created using additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing. The official standard is readable by many CAD programs and can describe the shape and composition of any 3D object to be fabricated on any 3D printer. Unlike .stl file formatting (which precedes .amf), AMF files have native support for color, materials, lattices, and constellations.

.X3D:Used chiefly by printing service bureaus, X3D files can store a vast amount of information related to 3D graphics and scenery. The format is XML-based, supporting complex renderings and visualizations across software platforms. X3D strives to become the 3D graphics standard for web-based content, as it is robust enough for viewing objects – whereas most other formats are largely useful only for modeling parts and interpreting surface data.

Collada:Collada (Collaborative Design Activity) formatted files hold data for many interactive 3D applications. The nonprofit technology consortium known as the Khronos Group manages the format. Like X3D, it is XML-based and capable of transferring graphics data between various applications and programs.

.OBJ:The OBJ file format is an open data-format that represents 3D geometry alone namely, the position of each vertex, the position of each vertex in a coordinate system. OBJ coordinates have no units, but OBJ files can contain scale information in a readable comment line. As this format is widely used by 3D modeling programs, it can be transferred between programs and interpreted on its own by some slicing and host softwares for 3D printing without exporting as an STL file.

.IGS:is a vendor-neutral (not owned by any one company) file format that allows the digital exchange of information from CAD software. IGES models with the .igs extension can be used to display various forms of technical information including wiring diagrams, wireframes, and 3D solid models. Although it has existed for more than three decades, the format is still in use. There has been substantial effort to replace .igs with STEP files of the .stp extension, but this has not completely succeeded as of 2014.

.STEP or .stp:refers to a STEP file, which is an abbreviation of: Standard for the Exchange of Product model data. These files represent 3D objects in CAD software, and can contain related information. It was designed as a successor to IGES (.igs), although it has not fully replaced it. STEP files are as close to the universal standard of 3D modeling as is currently available. STEP files are used in many industries and can contain data from the entire life-cycle of a products design.

.3ds:is one of the file formats used by the Autodesk 3ds Max 3D modeling, animation and rendering software. (.max is a similar file format in 3ds Max)

.blend:is the format used by Blender. Each .blend file contains a database; this database contains all scenes, objects, meshes, textures, etc. that are present in the file.

.dae:was designed as a format for collaborative design activity for establishing an interchange file format for interactive 3D applications.

.ipt:is used by Autodesk Inventor, a program for designing 3D object prototypes. The data consists of a single 2D or 3D object that can be combined with other parts in assembly files (.iam).

.obj:is an open file format that has been adopted for 3D graphics by many different applications and software programs. It is a universally accepted format and can be read by almost any 3D modeling program.

.skp:is used by Google SketchUp, a free 3D modeling program that allows conceptual designs to be created, viewed, and shared quickly and easily. Models created with SketchUp can also be placed within Google Earth.

.fbx:is an exchange format, in particular for interoperability between Autodesk products and other digital content creation (DCC) software packages.

.lwo:is a format for the LightWave high-end software package used for rendering 3D images, both animated and static. Recent versions of Lightwave also use Collada.

.off:refers to Object File Format (.off). These files are used to represent the geometry of a model by specifying the polygons of the models surface. The polygons can have any number of vertices.

.ply:is the a computer file format known as the Polygon File Format or the Stanford Triangle Format. The format was principally designed by the Stanford Graphics Lab to store three dimensional data from 3D scanners. In some cases this can be used as alternative to STL files.

.dwg:is a binary file format used for storing 2D and 3D design data and metadata. It was developed by Autodesk and is supported natively in many CAD softwares and can be exported cleanly into many others.

.dwf:is a secure file format developed by Autodesk for the efficient distribution and communication of design data to anyone who needs to view, review, or print design files. DWF files are highly compressed, making them smaller and faster to transmit than other types of design files, without the overhead associated with complex CAD drawings and their internal/external dependencies.

.dxf:(AutoCAD DXF) (drawing interchange format) is a CAD data file format developed by Autodesk for enabling data exchange and interoperability between AutoCAD and various other programs. It was developed in 1982 and is regarded as a legacy format incapable of storing some modern CAD data.

.acis:is a file type used by the ACIS modeling kernel developed by Spatial Corporation. The software can be used for 3D modeling, 3D model management, and 3D model visualization.

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3D Printing Steps Types of Method

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), refers to processes used to create a three-dimensional object in which layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object. Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and are produced using digital model data from a 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File (AMF) file. STL is one of the most common file types that 3D printers can read. Thus, unlike material removed from a stock in the conventional machining process, 3D printing or AM builds a three-dimensional object from computer-aided design (CAD) model or AMF file by successively adding material layer by layer.

The term 3D printing originally referred to a process that deposits a binder material onto a powder bed with inkjet printer heads layer by layer. More recently, the term is being used in popular vernacular to encompass a wider variety of additive manufacturing techniques. The United States and global technical standards use the official term additive manufacturing for this broader sense. ISO/ASTM52900-15 defines seven categories of AM processes within its meaning: binder jetting, directed energy deposition, material extrusion, material jetting, powder bed fusion, sheet lamination and vat photopolymerization.

3D printable models may be created with a computer-aided design (CAD) package, via a 3D scanner, or by a plain digital camera and photogrammetry software. 3D printed models created with CAD result in reduced errors and can be corrected before printing, allowing verification in the design of the object before it is printed.

The manual modeling process of preparing geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. 3D scanning is a process of collecting digital data on the shape and appearance of a real object, creating a digital model based on it.

Before printing a 3D model from an STL file, it must first be examined for errors. Most CAD applications produce errors in output STL files: holes, faces normals, self-intersections, noise shells or manifold errors. A step in the STL generation known as repair fixes such problems in the original model. Generally, STLs that have been produced from a model obtained through 3D scanning often have more of these errors. This is due to how 3D scanning works-as it is often by point to point acquisition, reconstruction will include errors in most cases.

Once completed, the STL file needs to be processed by a piece of software called a slicer, which converts the model into a series of thin layers and produces a G-code file containing instructions tailored to a specific type of 3D printer (FDM printers).[citation needed] This G-code file can then be printed with 3D printing client software (which loads the G-code and uses it to instruct the 3D printer during the 3D printing process).

Printer resolution describes layer thickness and X-Y resolution in dots per inch (dpi) or micrometers (m). Typical layer thickness is around 100 m (250 DPI), although some machines can print layers as thin as 16 m (1,600 DPI). X-Y resolution is comparable to that of laser printers. The particles (3D dots) are around 50 to 100 m (510 to 250 DPI) in diameter.

Construction of a model with contemporary methods can take anywhere from several hours to several days, depending on the method used and the size and complexity of the model. Additive systems can typically reduce this time to a few hours, although it varies widely depending on the type of machine used and the size and number of models being produced simultaneously.

Traditional techniques like injection molding can be less expensive for manufacturing polymer products in high quantities, but additive manufacturing can be faster, more flexible and less expensive when producing relatively small quantities of parts. 3D printers give designers and concept development teams the ability to produce parts and concept models using a desktop size printer.

Seemingly paradoxical, more complex objects can be cheaper for 3D printing production than less complex objects.

Though the printer-produced resolution is sufficient for many applications, printing a slightly oversized version of the desired object in standard resolution and then removing material with a higher-resolution subtractive process can achieve greater precision.

Some printable polymers such as ABS, allow the surface finish to be smoothed and improved using chemical vapor processes based on acetone or similar solvents.

Some additive manufacturing techniques are capable of using multiple materials in the course of constructing parts. These techniques are able to print in multiple colors and color combinations simultaneously, and would not necessarily require painting.

Some printing techniques require internal supports to be built for overhanging features during construction. These supports must be mechanically removed or dissolved upon completion of the print.

All of the commercialized metal 3D printers involve cutting the metal component out of the metal substrate after deposition. A new process for the GMAW 3D printing allows for substrate surface modifications to remove aluminum or steel.

Time To 3D isIndias first-of-its-kind 3D printing hublocated at Mumbai. While 3D printing technology has been around for three decades, it has mainly been restricted to industrial and B2B applications. Founder Mr. Rahul Shah sensed the need to bring this technology to direct consumers and to bridge the gap between technological advancement and public awareness. As a result, Time To 3D was founded with the aim of creating a platform to increase awareness on 3D printing and to engage directly with consumers.

This initiative is a partnership between Imaginarium (Indias largest 3D printing company) and the Time Media Group. You will find state of the art equipment at the hub that can cater to both consumers and industries. As planned consumers have full access to 3D printing technology at this hub.

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An Overview of the Most Common Types of Metal 3D Printing

10 Best Rated 3D Printers Available on Amazon Winter 2018

Best 3D Printers 2018 Buyers Guide

An Overview of the Most Common Types of Metal 3D Printing

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Effective and quick metal 3D Printing is tantamount to the Holy Grail of additive manufacturing. Companies are in a full-scale arms race to establish the most effective means of moulding metal into malleable forms and in accordance,sales have been rising annually. Metal 3D printing is poised to kickstart a whole new renaissance in manufacturing. So far, there are multiple types of metal 3D printing that each have their own benefits and drawbacks. Here are some of the most common types used to digitally craft metal objects.

SLM refers to the metal 3D printing method of using lasers to melt and recombine powders. This method is fantastic for rearranging alloys. SLM is very similar to Direct Metal Laser Sintering and according to rumours the name difference is due a falling out between the parties developing the method and varying patents. Nonetheless, both methods make use of lasers to arrange a wide spectrum of alloys.

SLS, while mostly used for plastics, can also be used for certain types of metals. SLS and SLM are among the most common means by which metals are 3D printed, also known as Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) and Direct Metal Laser Melting (DMLM). These methods are quite similar to the point of being confused for each other very often. The difference lies in what materials they affect. SLM sinters powders making it useful for alloys as opposed to SLS which processes single element metals and certain alloys. SLS displays a far wider range of material powders that it can work with and it can achieve varying levels of density in creating structures. Another difference is that SLS requires the elements to be fully melted. The main companies operating in SLS and SLM are 3D Systems and EOS.

Robocasting is a fairly obscure practice used to make ceramic models or thin layer inks ofcertain types with various materials. The thin nozzle allows for a very precise mode of action with elaborate designs being woven by the printer. Nitrides, metals and composites have been used for this method. The end-products are very high strength and the method is very material efficient. Robocasting Enterprises LLCis the main company operating in this field.

This is one of the fastest means of printing metal. Cold-spray printingrefers to a means of firing particles at a surface to build up a physical object. It was originally used by NASA to build metal objects in space. It has been recently employed into the LightSpee3D printer (as shown above).

The LightSpee3d printer is currently the fastest metal printer. It has the potential to reduce production costs as well. The makers have spoken about how its cheaper than the most popular forms of metal printing. Similary, it can reduce production time from 2 to 30 minutes in certain cases. It is also a mass production method. It is one of the most promising forms of metal printing on the market.

Image retrieved from: 3Dprintingindustry.com

Originally developed in MIT, this metal 3D printing method uses powders just like in SLS, but instead of laser technology in makes use of binding agents. The process is carried out layer by layer till it produces a 3D model. This form of metal printing is used by ExOne. This type of printing leaves a lot of powder residue after processing, but luckily it can be reused easily. One of its greatest advantages is the speed with which it generates models. One of the innovations made by binder jetting was the ability to use 2 materials in a single print.

This site has covered the basics of magnetojet 3D printing before. This system is primarily employed by Vader Systems. The method uses a metallic ink that is sprayed down and magnetised to produce very quick and elaborate different shapes. It is being used by Lockheed-Martin in aeronautics.

Imaged retrieved from: Loughborough University

DED is actually a blanket term that covers a large swathe of Additive Manufacturing terms. These methods include Laser engineered net shaping, directed light fabrication, direct metal deposition and 3D laser cladding. Its main use is to add to existing objects rather than creating a whole new one from scratch. A material or wire is heated with a laser on top of an existing object, soldering them together when using any DED method. It provides a very high ability to control the structure of the grains making it ideal for intricate repair work. Compared to other methods, very few materials are available for use in DED which can put it at a disadvantage.

LENS is a laser-based metal printing method that fuses powders to produce printed structures. Like many other laser based metal printing methods, LENS necessitates a very controlled environment. The process requires a hermetically sealed chamber, typically purged of oxygen with the use of Argon. This keeps levels of oxidation as low as humanly possible.

LENS lasers can range from 500W to 4kW. The process has been used to processtitanium,stainlesssteelandInconel. Despite the difficulties of maintaining the oxygen free chamber, LENS allows users a degree of accuracy and control that few additive manufacturing methods are able to. After the LENS process is completed parts still need to be finished separately.

Image retrieved from: 3D Printing Technology

Originally developed by NASA a decade ago, EBFE is a method primarily used in aeronautics. This method can craft surprisingly complex geometric shapes with no material waste whatsoever. It was a natural metal 3D printing method for space agencies to use because of itsability to create lightweight shapes boosting fuel conservation. As the name suggests,it uses electron beams to solidify a melting wire. This is a great method for transforming nearly liquified metals into new shapes.

LMD is in many ways similar to melting or sintering tech. The technology deposits powders and uses lasers to heat them into shape onto a platform. The core difference appear upon closer inspection. For example, this method utilises a constant powder stream being melted. It uses twin streams of powders and another pair of shaping gas streams in the procedure.

So far the technology works on iron, cobalt-based, nickel-based alloys, tungsten carbide and other metal powder coated metal. It is useful for strengthening, repair, regeneration or direct manufacturing. Printers like ITRIs LMD 3D also use various intensities and laser types depending on what suits the materials best. As a result it can work with such a diverse range of metals.

Metal DLP printing is quite a recent development. Prodways is one of the most famous companies leading the charge withtheir MOVINGLight technology(as shown in the video above). The technology uses UV curing on a metallic powders that has an organic binder around it. The binder has to be removed through oven heating to produce the complete part. One of the machines that uses this is the V6000 printer by Prodways.

MOVINGLight is an incredibly fast technology. It can produce structures very quickly. In many ways it isnt all that different from standard DLP style printing. One of the things holding the technology back, however, is that the materials are very difficult to produce. It requires the combination of multiple elements with the organic binder.

UPM is a relatively new method that can operate with metals but also a variety of other materials. Researchers believe that this method, at its full potential, can make complex technologies from start to finish. It will be able to mix and match various materials into one cohesive whole.

UPM uses sound to manipulate various particles. Another thing that makes it unique as a method is that it requires no contact with the material itself. The sound makes particle hover above the floor of the machine and it takes the desired shape. This method is still in the test phase, but it promises to be one that could shake up manufacturing as a whole.

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Types of 3d printing materials used in 3d printing

Printing technology has grown leaps and bounds since the advent of 3D printing technology. The power to print objects in three dimension has made, not just school science projects more interesting but also impacted the manufacturing industry in many ways. Earlier, all you needed was a sheet of paper and an ink cartridge to print, the 3D printers now use everything right from plastics to edible things like even chocolate. 3D printing materials can range from materials including metals, resins, ceramics and more. The most popular material is plastic and most of the desktop style printers, print objects using plastic. But high-end 3D printers are capable of using many different materials. The types of 3D printing materials used in 3d printing depends on the products to be manufactured. You cant use human body cells, as a material to prepare an aerospace machine model!

The materials not only vary in types but differ in state, form and shapes. It can be filament, granules, powder, etc. Now that we know how important the materials used in 3D printing are, lets see what types of printing materials can be used. There are too many 3D printing materials available in the market, so we will be focusing on the most important ones.

The most used material for 3D printing is Plastic. In desktop printers and even in the high end 3D printers, plastic used as the 3D printing material. Nylon, or Polyamide, is commonly used in powder form with the sintering process or in filament form with the FDM process. It is a strong, flexible and durable plastic material that has proved reliable for 3D printing. It is naturally white in colour but it can be coloured pre- or post printing. This material can also be combined (in powder format) with powdered aluminum to produce another common 3D printing material for sintering Alumide.

ABS is another common plastic used for 3D printing, and is widely used on the entry-level FDM 3D printers in filament form. It is a particularly strong plastic and comes in a wide range of colours. ABS can be bought in filament form from a number of non-propreitary sources, which is another reason why it is so popular.

PLA is a bio-degradable plastic material that has gained traction with 3D printing for this very reason. It can be utilized in resin format for DLP/SL processes as well as in filament form for the FDM process. It is offered in a variety of colours, including transparent, which has proven to be a useful option for some applications of 3D printing. However it is not as durable or as flexible as ABS. LayWood is a specially developed 3D printing materials used for entry-level extrusion 3D printers. It comes in filament form and is a wood/polymer composite (also referred to as WPC). [Source]

Also called White-, Black-, Transparent detail / White detail resin / High detail-, Transparent-, Paintable Resin

Liquid Photopolymer cured with UV light

White, black & transparent most typical colors

Made with multiple steps or from powder directly

Coloring options like gold and bronze plating

First ceramic is printed then surface is glazed

Ceramic white, glaze typically white

3mm minimum wall thickness [Source]

These are just a few very commonly used materials for 3D printing. As previously established, the type of material depends on the type of product to be manufactured. In case of bio printing, the materials will be cells, or body tissues. Not just that, food industry are using 3D printing technology by experimenting with food substitutes. There are also printers that work with sugar, pasta and meat.

The choice of material that one selects not only depends on what product one is making, but also varies from characteristics of the materials used. The traits can be tensile strength, ductility, etc. One of the most important trait of them all is flexibility. What flexibility does is that it adds strength to the product and increases its durability.

To begin its examination into flexible filaments, 3D Matter studied six flexible filaments relying on criteria provided by users, including the degree of flexibility, as well as overall quality, performance, and ease-of-use. The team tested filaments from NinjaFlex, Recreus, Oo-Kuma, Polymaker and MadeSolid on a Colido v2.0 and Makergear M2 3D printers at speeds of 20mm/s and layer heights of .2 mm, before putting their prints through such tests as those related to shore hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break, and elasticity. Other, less quantifiable features taken into account were characteristics like surface finish, consistency across prints, geometrical accuracy, and how well the filament could be fed into a printer without issue. [Source]

References:tips for best results with flexible filamentOther Materials

Types of 3d printing materials used in 3d printing

Learn about all the types of 3d printing materials used in 3d printing. This article also gives a clarity on types of plastics used in 3d printing.

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types of printing material?

Ok, I got the standard roll with my printer of PLA (blue) which when printed is rock solid.

What other types of material can I get?

IE. if i wanted to print an iPhone case or dampening feet for the ultimaker, i would like a bit of give in the material.

What else is there and what can it do?

Theres lots to choose from! (what country are you in? Can you set that in your profile please?) Ive only printed regular PLA so Ill let someone else answer.

This shop has many filament types (click on 3mm Filaments Specialty at the top):

Speaking of crazy filament types… Thermochrome filament that changes color when temperature raises – cool!

Theres nylon also. I plan to try some tomorrow if I can get to it…

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