HPs 3D printing platform begins ambitious plans to transform mass-manufacturing all over again

HPs 3D printing platform begins ambitious plans to transform mass-manufacturing all over again HPs 3D printing platform begins ambitious plans to transform mass-manufacturing all over again 3D printing refers to various processes used to manufacture three dimensional objects in successive layers of material formed under computer control. 3D printed bus shelter offers a canopy of … Continue reading “HPs 3D printing platform begins ambitious plans to transform mass-manufacturing all over again”

HPs 3D printing platform begins ambitious plans to transform mass-manufacturing all over again

HPs 3D printing platform begins ambitious plans to transform mass-manufacturing all over again

3D printing refers to various processes used to manufacture three dimensional objects in successive layers of material formed under computer control.

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HPs 3D printing platform begins ambitious plans to transform mass-manufacturing all over again

all images and videos courtesy of HP

just like they revolutionized the paper printing industry in 1984 with both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop,hewlett-packard (HP)plans to disrupt the $12 trillion manufacturing industry by unveiling one of the worlds first production-ready 3D printing systems jet fusion 3D printing solutions.the platform intends to transform design, prototyping and manufacturing to deliver superior quality physical parts up to 10 times faster and at half the cost of current 3D print systems.

our 3D printing platform is unique in its ability to address over 340 million voxels per second, versus one point at a time, giving our prototyping and manufacturing partners radically faster build speeds, functional parts and breakthrough economics,said stephen nigro, president of HPs 3D printing business.the new HP jet fusion 3D printing solution delivers a combination of speed, quality, and cost never seen in the industry. businesses and manufacturers can completely rethink how they design and deliver solutions to their customers.

leveraging decades of research in precision mechanics and materials sciences, HP is one of the few companies with the expertise that can transform the global manufacturing industry alone.to help with full implementation HP co-developed the system withautodeskproto labsandsiemens.

at NIKE we innovate for the worlds best athletes,said tom clarke, president of innovation at NIKE.weve been using 3D printing to create new performance innovations for footwear for the past several years. now we are excited to partner with HP to accelerate and scale our existing capabilities as we continue to explore new ways to manufacture performance products to help athletes reach their full potential.HP will offer two 3D printers with a synchronized set of tools to meet same-day demands at the lowest cost per part.

BMW is a pioneer and early adopter of innovative technologies in the field of additive manufacturing, especially for prototyping in concept cars and series-like approval builds,explains jens ertel, head of BMW group additive manufacturing center.for our future roadmap toward serial part production and personal customization, we see major potential in our partnership with HP to investigate this new kind of 3D printing technology at an early stage. as one of the first partners, we had the chance to see the constant evolution of the machines over time from the first prototype approximately five years ago to the market ready product that is available now.in the future HP will expand its palette of materials and colors where customers will benefit from the ability to transform part properties, giving unprecedented control and allowing limitless combinations of applications.

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strictly limited to a run of 250 cars, british-automaker lyonheart cars builds a modern iteration of the classic jaguar e-type from the 1960s.

designed to fit nicely in any room, FoldiMate can be placed anywhere in your house for a grand total of $980 USD.

designed to fit nicely in any room, FoldiMate can be placed anywhere in your house for a grand total of $980 USD.

at 15 foot tall and over 8,000 pounds, prosthesis is the first exo-bionic racing mech and the beginning of a whole new league of sport.

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Forecast 3D Will Be One of First to Offer HPs New 3D Printing Technology Multi Jet Fusion (MJF

Printing and Short-Run Manufacturing service provider Forecast 3D is excited to announce that it will be adding a 9th technology HPs Multi Jet Fusion 3D Printing to its suite of additive and manufacturing services. Forecast 3D looks forward to producing functional prototypes and end-use parts up to 10 times faster with 2 MJF machines arriving next week.

Carlsbad, CA – March 21, 2017 – For 23 years, Forecast 3D has been providing the latest 3D printing and short-run manufacturing services to engineers all over North America. As members of the HP Founders Club, Forecast 3D will be one of the first 3D Printing companies to offer the new additive technology, with 2 HP Multi-Jet Fusion (MJF) 3D printers on the way.

Within HPs new 3D Printing technology, the MJF platform utilizes fusing and detailing agents over a powdered nylon 12 build area, with infrared lamps fusing an entire layer in a single pass, versus sintering each part individually with a pin point laser. With this method, the MJF technology can build geometrically complex parts up to 10 times faster than the commonly used SLS (Selective Laser Sintering) process. Furthermore, MJF produces high precision parts with robust mechanical properties, for functional prototypes and end-use parts that are more isotropic and boast a significantly higher Z-direction strength.

We are very excited to be a part of this new era where 3D printing will actually become a common and feasible option for production parts. Since the majority of MJF machines will be going to companies that intend to use their machine for their own production, we couldnt be more pleased to be one of the few to start providing parts to companies who either are waiting, arent ready, or dont intend to buy a machine themselves, stated Corey Weber, co-founder and CEO.

With the machines arriving March 31st, MJF printing in Forecast 3Ds ISO certified facility will begin in early April. The team anticipates building benchmark parts for early adopting customers within the week. Forecast 3D is expecting a high demand for this service and is encouraging engineers to leverage this faster, more efficient additive technology for projects that can speed time to market by sending in files now, if they havent already done so, to secure their place in line.

We have a lot of customers eager to start using MJF for their product development cycle. The exceptional speed, precision, and part quality that the HP technology is expected to deliver has the engineering community excited, Tim Collins, Vice President of Business Development, added. Expanding our array of services and being one of the first to offer this new technology has created plenty of elation among the team here as well.

Those interested in learning more about MJF or any of Forecasts 3D printing and short-run manufacturing services can visit upload benchmark CAD data.

Forecast 3D ( is an ISO certified facility and has been in the 3D Printing and shortrun manufacturing space since 1994 and was voted by their employees as one of the 10 Best Places to Work in the US & Canada in Plastics News. Known for their quality of service and craftsmanship, Forecast 3D offers a diverse range of 3D printing technologies with SLA (Stereolithography), FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), SLM (Selective Laser Melting) / DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering), PolyJET high-precision 3D printing, SLS (Selective Laser Sintering), RTV & Hybrid Tooling, CNC Machining, and now MJF (Multi Jet Fusion).

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Forecast 3D Will Be One of First to Offer HPs New 3D Printing Technology Multi Jet

Printing and Short-Run Manufacturing service provider Forecast 3D is excited to announce that it will be adding a 9th technology HPs Multi Jet Fusion 3D Printing to its suite of additive and manufacturing services. Forecast 3D looks forward to producing functional prototypes and end-use parts up to 10 times faster with 2 MJF machines arriving next week.

Carlsbad, CA – March 21, 2017 – For 23 years, Forecast 3D has been providing the latest 3D printing and short-run manufacturing services to engineers all over North America. As members of the HP Founders Club, Forecast 3D will be one of the first 3D Printing companies to offer the new additive technology, with 2 HP Multi-Jet Fusion (MJF) 3D printers on the way.

Within HPs new 3D Printing technology, the MJF platform utilizes fusing and detailing agents over a powdered nylon 12 build area, with infrared lamps fusing an entire layer in a single pass, versus sintering each part individually with a pin point laser. With this method, the MJF technology can build geometrically complex parts up to 10 times faster than the commonly used SLS (Selective Laser Sintering) process. Furthermore, MJF produces high precision parts with robust mechanical properties, for functional prototypes and end-use parts that are more isotropic and boast a significantly higher Z-direction strength.

We are very excited to be a part of this new era where 3D printing will actually become a common and feasible option for production parts. Since the majority of MJF machines will be going to companies that intend to use their machine for their own production, we couldnt be more pleased to be one of the few to start providing parts to companies who either are waiting, arent ready, or dont intend to buy a machine themselves, stated Corey Weber, co-founder and CEO.

With the machines arriving March 31st, MJF printing in Forecast 3Ds ISO certified facility will begin in early April. The team anticipates building benchmark parts for early adopting customers within the week. Forecast 3D is expecting a high demand for this service and is encouraging engineers to leverage this faster, more efficient additive technology for projects that can speed time to market by sending in files now, if they havent already done so, to secure their place in line.

We have a lot of customers eager to start using MJF for their product development cycle. The exceptional speed, precision, and part quality that the HP technology is expected to deliver has the engineering community excited, Tim Collins, Vice President of Business Development, added. Expanding our array of services and being one of the first to offer this new technology has created plenty of elation among the team here as well.

Those interested in learning more about MJF or any of Forecasts 3D printing and short-run manufacturing services can visit upload benchmark CAD data.

Forecast 3D ( is an ISO certified facility and has been in the 3D Printing and shortrun manufacturing space since 1994 and was voted by their employees as one of the 10 Best Places to Work in the US & Canada in Plastics News. Known for their quality of service and craftsmanship, Forecast 3D offers a diverse range of 3D printing technologies with SLA (Stereolithography), FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), SLM (Selective Laser Melting) / DMLS (Direct Metal Laser Sintering), PolyJET high-precision 3D printing, SLS (Selective Laser Sintering), RTV & Hybrid Tooling, CNC Machining, and now MJF (Multi Jet Fusion).

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A look under the hood of HPs 3D printing technolo

Its always fun to drive a nice car, but it seems that these days people are more concerned with the quality of the multimedia system and the accuracy of the GPS rather than whats under the hood. This is because the automotive industry has matured and the performance and reliability of the engines is almost taken for granted. The same may NOT be said of 3D printing. In our industry, whats under the hood is critical to the success of 3D printing products in both the short and long term.

While we dont want to give away any state secrets, wed like to share some underlying principles ofHPs Multi Jet Fusion™ technologyand why we believe it can be a transformational platform.While HP Multi Jet Fusion™ is a new technology, it stands on the shoulders of decades of HP R&D investment in thermal inkjet printheads, inks, agents, precision mechanics and material science. This cutting edge technology offers a combination of speed as well as control over part and material properties beyond those found in alternative 3D printing processes.

The technology is built on HPs core competency of rapidly and accurately placing precise quantities of multiple types of fluids on a variety of materials. This gives HP Multi Jet Fusion™ a versatility and quality potential that has enormous headroom. At the core, our HP Thermal Inkjet technology, is what ultimately enables 3D printing with higher quality1at a lower cost2.

Increased productivity can be achieved by taking advantage of the wide HP Thermal Inkjet arrays. Around this core technology we developed our proprietary synchronous architecture that images entire areas in a quick pass, resulting in significantly faster printing speeds compared to current methods. Using HP Thermal Inkjet arrays with their high number of nozzles per inch, the synchronous architecture is capable of printing over 30 million drops per second across each inch of working area.

As with many 3D printing processes, HP Multi Jet Fusion™ technology starts by laying down a thin layer of material in the working area. Next, the carriage containing an HP Thermal Inkjet array, precisely deposits chemical agents across the full working area. Finally, the energy, layering, and printing processes are combined into synchronized area wide sweeps, layer-by-layer, until a complete part is formed.

Of course, high productivity can lead to challenges in making quality parts. For parts to work, its important to ensure that the material has been properly fused and that part edges are smooth and well-defined. To achieve quality at speed, HP invented a proprietary multi-agent printing process where the agents are applied by HP Thermal Inkjet arrays. The general process for HPs multi-agent printing process is described in this schematic.

Schematic of HP multi-agent printing process (cross-section views):

In addition to fusing and detailing agents, HP Multi Jet Fusion™ technology can also employ additional agents to transform properties at each volumetric pixel. These transforming agents, deposited point-by-point across each cross-section, allow for production of precision parts that cannot be manufactured using current methods.

Stay tuned to our blog for more information about HPs Multi Jet Fusion™ technology and feel free to add your comments to this post regarding our solutions and the latest technologies in the 3D printing/AM industry.

1Based on internal HP testing of part build time, for a set of representative parts in batch process comparing HP Thermal Inkjet based Multi Jet Fusion™ technology

2HP Multi Jet Fusion™ technology leverages proprietary HP Thermal Inkjet technology, enabling lower cost systems that output similar quality to more expensive devicessuch as selective laser sintering (SLS)and speed.to the leading 3D printing technologies in the U.S.selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modelingas of October, 2014

Half the plastic in HPs new 3D printer is 3D printed

The decision to include the 3D-printed parts in the two new devices was a purely economic one, says HP

Tue 4 Oct 201612.44 BSTLast modified on Tue 21 Feb 201717.13 GMT

Half the custom parts in HPs first 3D printer in over a decade were themselves 3D printed, according to the companys head of3D printing, Stephen Nigro.

The decision to include the 3D-printed parts in the two new devices, which will start shipping by the end of this year, helps the company highlight the quality of the printers output, but Nigro insists that the decision was a purely economic one.

For any given small plastic part, he told the Guardian, if youre making fewer than 55,000 pieces youre actually better off printing than moulding. . He said: The reason were doing it is not because we can, although that certainly would be one reason. Its because we should: it actually makes economic sense for us to print those parts; we can actually save money.

The economics is made simpler by the comparatively limited quantities of 3D printers that HP expects to sell. It is not building desktop 3D printers, of the sort that sell to hobbyists and educational establishments: instead, its pushing straight to the prototyping and short-run manufacturing markets, selling hefty devices that start at $130,000 a piece, for the Jet Fusion 3D 3200.

Nigro said approximately half the custom plastic parts in the machine are going to be 3D printed. He said HP was surprised to discover how much it could 3D print, because we were going through the development cycle and we had this goal of like, OK, we want to have some of the parts in this printer be printed by the printer itself, because we thought it would be cool to have the printer print itself.

We honestly thought it would be probably five or six parts. And it wasnt until we got pretty close to the introduction, we had handed over to our supply chain team who were looking at the economics and they came back and said yeah, about half the parts, were going to print.

The idea of a 3D printer that can 3D print a 3D printer is not new. In 2005,the RepRap projectbegan, an open-source movement with the goal of creating self-replicating machines. In practice, the group creates and shares schematics for building and using a 3D printer that can print copies of itself but has not yet succeeded.

HPs 3D printing invasion strategy 7 things to know

HP announced this week it will release its 3D printer in late 2016, but an innovative new PC and 3D scanner next month. Here are 7 things to know about its strategy.

HPs Multi Jet Fusion PrinterImage: HP

In a long-anticipated announcement,HP unveiled its new industrial 3D printer, 3D-making computer, and new 3D design software to the public this week. But dont get too excited the actual printer isnt coming out until 2016.

Here are 7 key things we know about HPs broad 3D printing strategy:

HP claims its Multi Jet Fusion technology will be 10 times faster than the 3D printers on the market today, and it will also be cheaper and print with better materials. HPtold the New York Timesthat the printer will print 1,000 gears, each two inches across, in three hours, compared to other 3D printers more than 80 hours. Also according to the Times article, the printers inkjet heads can spit 350 million ink drops a second. Of course, 3D Systems, Stratasys, and other vendors wont be standing still over the next two years either.

Sprout is a PCthat looks similar to an iMac, but has a small digital projector, which is also a 3D digital scanner, on the top of the monitor. It projects onto a mat, which is in the place of a keyboard, creating a touch-enabled second screen. The product will be $1899 and available on Nov. 9, and some stores in the US will sell them as well. Preorders are now available on .

The software that works on Sprout is an apperating system called Workspace, which sits on top of Windows 8. Create is the app that enables the digital canvas to work, and is made for makers and hobbyists to use and riff off of designs to create new objects and products faster than they can with current systems. It has been tested by 400 people.

StoryProducer Dreamworks Ed, where you can animate your own movie scenes with Dreamworks characters

Crayola Color Draw and Sing, which is a fun, educational app for kids

Martha Stewart CraftStudio, where you can make cards, invitations, and scrapbook pages

PowerDirector, where you can make your own movies

Theres also a page where developers can apply forapp development for Sprout.

Last year,HP said it would be releasing a 3D printer by the end of the fiscal year (which would be this Friday), which obviously isnt happening. The company also recently announced itwill split into two parts: Hewlett Packard Enterprise will focus on business and government software and services, while HP Inc. will focus on printing and computers. The3D printerswill be part of HP Inc.

But the 3D printer wont be available until mid-2016. The company said it was tested by kids, doctors, engineers, designers, nurses with digital cadavers, and teachers before it was announced.

Instead of building desktop 3D printers for consumers, HP has decided to target service bureaus, where hobbyists and makers can come to print things that they need when they need them. This is a different approach than most other popular 3D printing companies like MakerBot and 3D Systems, who are trying to capitalize on home desktop printers and win over the mass market.

In the announcement on Wednesday, HP said it use thermal inkjet technology. This is enabling them to print much faster than the traditional methods fused deposition modeling (which uses plastics) and stereolithography printing (which prints metal). This new process means it prints an entire layer of a 3D object at once, making the process faster and the objects more detailed.

With this printer, the target customer is large-scale industries, which means it is now a competitor to the long-standing Stratasys and 3D Systems models. But with Sprout HP is also targeting the average, non-CAD user with its software, meaning they think it is more likely that you will design your products at home and print them at service bureaus. The issue of difficult-to-use design software has arguably been the biggest problem with 3D printing thus far, so building an easier interface is important. HP said they want others to innovate on top of their products and services, so part of this is also aimed at technology parts and materials partners.

Lyndsey Gilpin is a former Staff Writer for TechRepublic, covering sustainability and entrepreneurship. Shes co-author of the book Follow the Geeks.

Lyndsey Gilpin has nothing to disclose. She doesnt hold investments in the technology companies she covers.

Lyndsey Gilpin is a former Staff Writer for TechRepublic, covering sustainability and entrepreneurship. Shes co-author of the book Follow the Geeks.

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3D Printing Technology Revs Up (SSYS DDD

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3D Printing Technology Revs Up (SSYS, DDD)

ByShoshanna DelventhalSeptember 1, 2016 4:36 PM EDT

Investors are polarized regarding the future of the emerging 3D printing industry. Thosebullishon industry leaders Stratasys Ltd. (SSYS) and 3D Systems Corp. (DDD) find the 3D printing market a favorablelong-term investmentas engineers, designers, architects and entrepreneurs increasingly bank on 3D solutions for their design and product modeling. According to Wohlers Report 2014, the global 3D printing industry will boom from $3.07 billion in totalrevenuein 2013 to $12.8 billion by 2018, exceeding $21 billion in worldwide revenue by 2020. (See also:What Happened to the 3D Printing Revolution? (SSYS, XONE).

While the two largest and most diversified 3D printing industry leaders now publicly trade at a price less than five years ago, investors who see the industry maturing after a slowdown and debilitating lengthened sales cycle seek to buy. Further, tech vet HP Inc. (HPQ) is shaking up the industry with its expansion from 2D printing to 3D printing technology, enabling it to compete with a growing number of industry players.

The Delaware-based technology company was formed in 2012 as a result of themergerbetween additive manufacturing companies Stratasys Inc. and Objet Ltd. In the second quarter, Stratasys reported a 19% decline in 3D printer revenueyear-over-year (YOY),while print materials and customer support revenue were both up 11%. Adjustedearnings per share(EPS) came in at $0.12, down from $0.15.

Stratasys also recently entered a strategic partnership with Boeing Co (BA), Ford Motor Co. (F) and Siemens to introduce advanced 3D printing technologies to the aerospace and automotive industries. Along with the new alliances, Stratasys has launched two new products, the Infinite-Build 3D Demonstrator and the Robotic Composite 3D Demonstrator, to help users reduce complexities and data loss.

The South Carolina-based competitor of Stratasys boasts seven models as opposed to three, with the additional ability to print on materials other than polymers, such as metals and ceramics. While reporting a 7% YOY decline in revenue, the company saw its share price spike 18%. The reason behind this stock surge comes from the fact that EPS in the second quarter of 2016 broke through the roof of expectations. 3D Systems reported Q2 2016 earnings of $0.12 per share reflected four times last years Q2 EPS and doubled that of Wall Streets projections. (See also:3D Systems Shares Soar on Earnings Beat.)

The emergence of tech industry giant HP in the 3D printing space could present a potential threat to smaller industry players such as 3D Systems and Stratasys. HP Inc. announced in May that it will enter the market with two separate models aimed at the industrial market, targeting companies that can afford premium high-capacity equipment. HPs fiscal 2016 total revenue of $11.9 billion represented a 4% decline YOY, yet exceeded expectations of just $11.47 billion. HP stock is trading near the 52-week high of $14.82 and target price of $15, at $14.40 on Sept. 1.

(See also:HP Enters the 3D Printer Market.)

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3D and 4D Printing Technologies An Overview

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ANALYTICAL / CHROMATOGRAPHY

3D and 4D Printing Technologies: An Overview

By:Wonjin Jo,* Kyung Sung Chu, Heon Ju Lee, Myoung-Woon Moon,Material Matters, 2016, 11.2

Wonjin Jo,* Kyung Sung Chu, Heon Ju Lee, Myoung-Woon Moon

3D Printing Group, Computational Science Research Center

Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 02792, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, also called additive manufacturing (AM), has recently come into the spotlight because of its potential high-impact implementation in applications ranging from personal tools to aerospace equipment. Even though 3D printing technology has only recently emerged as a hot topic, its history can be traced back to 1983 when the first 3D printer was created by Charles W. Hull, co-founder of 3D Systems. Since then, new and wide-ranging applications and markets for 3D printers have appeared rapidly, especially with the expiration of a number of core 3D printing patents owned by Stratasys Inc. and 3D Systems Inc. Users can easily build or modify 3D printers by themselves or take advantage of the rapidly growing availability of inexpensive 3D printers. The recent availability of highly capable 3D design software and 3D design websites (e.g., Shapeway and Thingiverse) allows the sharing of user-created free 3D digital design files or models, leading to more access to 3D printers and additional proliferation of 3D printing technology. When compared to traditional manufacturing technologies such as casting, machining, and drilling, 3D printing is considered an efficient technology in the areas of energy and materials, utilizing up to 90% of materials and providing up to 50% energy savings.1

As 3D printing becomes more than just a simple production process, it has come to support a convergence of technologies and applications such as sports equipment, food packaging, and jewelry, as well as products in the high tech fields of aerospace, medicine, architecture, education,2,3automotive industry, military support, and others. At the 2016 New York Fashion Week, two unique 3D printed dresses were unveiled. These masterpieces were produced through a collaboration between fashion designers and the 3D printing company, Stratasys.4The complex designs (e.g., mixing a variety of interlocking weaves, biomimicking natural animal textures) and cutting-edge material (e.g., nano-enhanced elastomeric 3D printing material) gave the dresses durability and flexibility. The area of regenerative medicine has also achieved impressive applications within the 3D printing field. Dr. Anthony Atalas team from the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine has successfully used 3D printing technology to fabricate living organs and tissue (including muscle structures, and bone and ear tissue).5,6These bioprinted body parts are capable of generating functional replacement tissue.7NASA has also been implementing 3D printing techniques and 3D printers to develop materials that allow astronauts to repair or replace essential parts and build structures in space. NASA recently collaborated with researchers at Washington State University to fabricate a replica of a moon rock using raw lunar regolith simulant and 3D laser printing technology.8,9The assembly of modular construction materials using giant 3D printers for use in the housing industry has gained significant interest, especially for poorer countries, during natural disasters, or sudden emergencies. Some 3D companies have succeeded in building houses or bridges with cement, sand, or concrete materials.1012

The rapidly decreasing cost, improved software design, and increasing range of printable materials have helped to bring about a new technology called four-dimensional (4D) printing. 4D printing provides printed objects with the ability to change form or function with time according to various stimuli such as heat, water, current, or light (Figure 1A).13The essential difference between 4D printing and 3D printing is the addition of smart design, or responsive materials that cause time-dependent deformations of objects. This review covers both 3D and 4D printing processes and shows the materials related to different printing types.

Figure 1. A) Schematic of 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4D concepts.B) The process of 3D and 4D printing technology involves three general stages: (12) modeling; (34) printing; and (5) finishing.

3D printing is the process of fabricating objects by building up materials layer by layer.Figure 1Bshows the 3D printing process from modeling to final printing. Based on the use of computer-aided design (CAD) describing the geometry and the size of the objects to be printed, a complicated 3D model is created in a printable standard tessellation language (STL) file format (Figure 1B1,1B2). Then, it is sliced into a series of digital cross-sectional layers in accordance with the layer thickness setting (Figure 1B3). Upon completion of the model, the object is fabricated by a 3D printer through the layer-by-layer fabrication process based on a series of 2D layers to create a static 3D object (Figure 1B4,1B5). 3D printing can involve different types of materials such as thermoplastic polymer, powder, metal, UV curable resin, etc.

Four-dimensional printing incorporates a time component to the 3D printed objects, making the design process more important. 4D-printed structures must be preprogrammed in detail based on the transforming mechanism of controllable smart materials that incorporate timedependent material deformations.13Figure 2ACshow 3D structures that self-fold based on the thermal activation of spatially variable patterns printed with a variety of shape memory polymers. Each polymer has a different thermal-dependent behavior that can make the box self-fold in a time-sequential manner based on smart design and thermomechanical mechanisms.14The choice of materials for 4D printing is significant, however, because most 3D printing materials are designed only to produce rigid, static objects. Recently, some smart shape alloy/polymer memory materials have been developed to utilize their self-assembled behaviors driven by heat, UV, or water absorption-driven as shown inFigure 2DF.13,15For example, the temperature-responsive artificial hand shown inFigure 2Fwas printed with a temperature-responsive TPU (thermal polyurethane) filament. It has the ability to contract or expand in response to specific temperatures. In addition, multi-materials having different environmental behaviors are also useful in 4D printing. A research group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology used two different materials with different porosities and water-absorption abilities to print transformable structures.16,17It was composed of a porous water-absorbing material on one side and a rigid waterproof material on the opposite side. When exposed to water, the water-absorbing side increased in volume while the other side remained unchanged, resulting in shape deformation.

Figure 2. AB) The design of the folding box with different materials assigned at different hinges.C) Upon heating, the programmed 3D printed sheet folds into a box with a self-locking mechanism. Copyright 2015, rights managed by Nature Publishing Group.DE) The resulting swollen flower structures were generated by biomimetic 4D printing with composite hydrogel and cellulose fibrils. Copyright 2016, rights managed by Nature Publishing Group.F) The temperature-responsive artificial hand was made with temperature-responsive TPU filament.

The 3D and 4D printing technologies are classified into different printing processes, defined mainly by the types of materials used. The selection of materials has a direct influence on the mechanical or thermal properties, as well as the transformation stimuli of the finished objects. This section describes the three most common types of 3D and 4D printing and reviews the most frequently used materials for these processes.

The FDM method operates by extruding thermoplastic materials and placing the semi-molten materials onto a stage to fabricate a 3D structure layer by layer.18More specifically, the thermoplastic filament is first led to an extruder which feeds and retracts the filament in precise amounts. The filament is melted by a heater block set to the melting temperature and moved through the extrusion nozzle tip by two rollers. The extruded filament is deposited as the print head traces the design of each defined cross-sectional layer of the desired structure by a digitally positioned mechanism. Then, the stage moves to the Z position in accordance with the setting value of layer thickness. These steps are repeated to complete fabrication of the 3D structure.

One advantage of FDM is the availability of a variety of filament materials as shown inFigure 3. A wide selection of FDM filaments are commercially available with different strength and temperature properties, such as ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, Prod. Nos.3DXABS0013DXABS0016), nylon (Prod. Nos.3DXION0013DXION004), PET (polyethylene terephthalate, Prod. Nos.900095and900125), TPU (thermal polyurethane, Prod. Nos.900126and900128), POM (polyoxymethylene), PC (polycarbonate), HIPS (high impact polystyrene), and PVA (polyvinyl alcohol), among others. In addition, some materials can be used as a raw material for mixing with other functional materials to improve specific functions. Among them, the PLA (polylactic acid) filament is a popular choice due to the many available properties as shown inFigure 3. Due to the thermoplastic behavior, many FDM filaments can also be used as 4D materials under applied heat change.

Figure 3.Thermoplastic filaments for Fused-deposition Modeling (FDM). The FDM-printed flower was made with a color changed filament under UV exposure.

Powder Bed and Inkjet Head 3D Printing (PBP)

The PBP process is an adaptation of inkjet printing. In this process, a layer of powder is first deposited and rolled to ensure uniform thickness, then the inkjet print head drops binder in a specified pattern as it moves, to form a single layer of a printed object across the bed of powder. The next powder layer is distributed over the deposited liquid binder, and this process is repeated, with each layer adhering to the last. Support structures are not required in PBP due to the ease of removing unbound powder using an air gun, after solidification of the finished object. The use of multiple print heads with colored binder, allows printing in full color.

Among the variety of powders available, calcium sulfate (CaSO4, Prod. Nos.255696and237132) is one of the most widely-used because of its ability to react with water-based binders. It can react with water-based solutions rapidly and change into gypsum (CaSO4∙ 2H2O) in a solid state.19In this method, the binding strength is the key factor in determining the physical and chemical properties of the printed device. Therefore, the proper combination of powder and binder should be carefully considered.

Very recently, Voxeljet developed the worlds largest industrial PBP system (VX4000) for sand molds. The largest cohesive build space is 4,000 2,000 1,000 mm (L W H) with 300 m of a layer applied in one cycle.20

SLA combines ultraviolet (UV) or visible laser light with curable liquid photopolymer resins. To create each layer, a laser beam illuminates a 2D cross-section of the object in a vat of resin, allowing the resin to solidify. Next, the object is raised by an equal distance of layer thickness to fill resin under and maintain contact with the bottom of the object. This process is repeated until the entire model is completed, at which point the platform is raised out of the vat and the excess resin is drained. Finally, the SLA object is finished by washing and curing under UV light. SLA produces a smoother surface on the final product compared to other 3D printing methods, as a result of using liquid photopolymers. Although SLA can produce a wide variety of shapes, its drawbacks include a significant amount of resin waste and the need for extensive cleaning after fabrication. Furthermore, resins used in the process are limited to either epoxy or acrylic bases, most of which can shrink upon polymerization.

A recent advance in SLA significantly decreases printing time. Carbon 3D Inc. announced a new continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) method that can print an object 100 times faster than existing methods by creating an oxygen depletion zone (dead zone) in liquid resins as shown inFigure 4.21The introduction of a unique oxygen-permeable window in the resin reservoir creates a thin liquid interface of uncured resin between the window and printing part. This oxygen-depleted dead zone allows for continuous translation and curing of the resin above the dead zone to form a consistent solid part.

Figure 4. A) Schematic of a CLIP printer.B) The resulting parts via CLIP at print speeds of 500 mm/hour. Copyright 2015, The American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Three-dimensional printing technology is highly versatile and efficient with respect to design, fabrication, and applications. 4D printing may be of great importance in the future due to its potential to redefine manufacturing-related industries. However, the technology must be further refined before it can replace conventional manufacturing methods. Therefore, future research and investment in 3D and 4D printing technologies are imperative to bring about improvements in essential areas including materials, printer systems, and product markets.

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Additive Manufacturing Parts Maker First in Line for HP Printing Technology

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August 10, 2017ByJean ThilmanyLeave a Comment

This week, HP named Proto Labs as its first additive manufacturing partner in the launch of its Multi Jet Fusion technology. The collaboration with the rapid manufacturer in Maple Plain, Minn., is part of HPs efforts to establish a global network of 3D printing service providers.

The new production-grade 3D printing technology from HP builds functioning plastic prototypes and production parts with speed, detailed precision, and consistent mechanical properties, according to HP.

In May, HP unvieled its the HP Jet Fusion 3D 3200 and the HP Jet Fusion 3D 4200 and the processing station. This week, HP named Proto Labs as its first partner in the launch.

Additive manufacturing has made for the quick prototyping and testing of a physical design, allowing designers to iterate quickly and speed their products time to market.

Manyif not mostengineering companies dont have access to the expensive machines needed for 3-D printing. For this, they turn to an outside supplier like Proto Labs. The additive technique turns out sample parts quickly and at lower cost than conventional manufacturing methods. Additive costs, however, are often much higher than for conventional methods when used for anything beyond small runs, such as for bridging tools, or as a prototyping method.

Whether they need small, thin-walled part is needed, a part with complex geometries, or a large, durable prototype or bridge part, they can have an additive manufactured part or set of parts made quickly and at a lower cost than through conventional manufacturing methods.

But if the company needs a low number of parts that have complex geometries (and durability isnt a huge factor), additive manufacturing may be the least expensive choice. It doesnt require tooling or large part runs.

If the company needs a low volume of parts with a straightforward geometry, machining may be the best choice. Machining in this case may need only one setup in a CNC machine and thus be fairly quick to make.

Because of its very nature, printed parts can take any shape. They dont need to adhere to the lines and curves of the traditionally manufactured parts. For parts with very intricate geometries or curved surfaces that cant be created through molding or machining, printing is a natural choice.

When choosing an additive manufacturing process, a company will first need to look to the process appropriate for its needs. Stereolithography (SL) produces parts from a wide selection of thermoset resin materials and offers the good feature resolution and a smooth surface finish. Its a good choice for small parts, for complex geometries, and its often used during early prototyping.

For sturdy, accurate parts, the selective laser sintering (SLS) process uses a Nylon-based powder similar to engineering thermoplastics, which allows engineers to submit the prototype to the demanding analyses and testssuch as the stress and strain test that are key before injection molding the part.

Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) can use most metal alloys, which means prototypes can also be functional; theyre made from of the same material as production components. Another benefit here: the layer-by-layer building makes it possible to design internal features and passages that couldnt be cast or otherwise machined.

These processes all offer the potential to transition into plastics or metal injection molding when increased production is needed.

The new Multi Jet Fusion technology uses an inkjet array to apply fusing and detailing agents across a bed of nylon powder, which are then fused by heating elements into a solid layer. The technologys approach to binding powder results in more isotropic material properties, faster build speeds, and, ultimately, lower costs compared to other powder-based 3D printing processes, according to HP.

The company is beginning with two portfolios soon available for purchase: the HP Jet Fusion 3D 3200 and the HP Jet Fusion 3D 4200. Both feature, according to HP, accuracy and detail, thermal control on a voxel-by-voxel basis, up to 10-times faster printing speeds, lowest cost-per-part, material reusability, an end-to-end solution, and open platform. The 4200, set to appeal to higher productivity levels for prototyping and short-run manufacturing needs and geared toward meeting same-day-business demands, additionally features 25 percent faster printing, up to 5-times faster cooling, even lower cost-per-part, customized and advanced print controls, and the ability to add additional parts to in-progress print jobs to meet quick turnaround.

The price point starts at $120,000 with full systems starting at $145,000. Or, you could have parts outsourced by a company like Proto Labs.

With the inclusion of Multi Jet Fusion, Proto Labs now offers five different industrial 3D printing processes, producing plastic, metal, and elastomeric components in as fast as one day.

The company also marries the additive manufacturing and the injection molding process. The supplier provides include quick turnaround time for additive-manufactured parts made of resin, metal, or a material similar to engineering thermoplastics. It can also produce low-volume injection molded parts from engineering-grade thermoplastic, liquid silicone rubber, and metal.

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HP 3D printers coming to India early next year

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HP 3D printers coming to India early next year

HP 3D printers coming to India early next year

According to Sumeer Chandra, Managing Director, HP Inc India, the company is in discussions with various industry stakeholders to help them begin 3D printing in India.

Published: Friday, December 8, 2017, 16:15 [IST]

3D printing has been generating quite a buzz in the consumer market. And since its introduction few years ago the technology has been undergoing some pretty significant developments and we are seeing exciting 3D-printed innovations entering the market.

Besides, after sensing tremendous opportunities in both commercial and industrial 3D printing in India, global PC and printer majorHPInc has just announced that the company will start selling its Next-Gen 3D printers in the country by early next year.

According to Sumeer Chandra, Managing Director, HP Inc India, the company is in discussions with various industry stakeholders to help them begin 3D printing in India. We will bring our 3D printers in next 2-3 months to India as part of our commitment to contribute to the India growth journey, Chandra said here.

With its Multi Jet Fusion (MJF) 3D printing technology, HP plans to disrupt the $12 trillion global manufacturing market and hopes to push 3D printings prototyping into developing manufacturing components. Initially, the focus will be on sectors like automobile and healthcare in India but the opportunities are immense, Chandra added.

Although in a nascent stage, the 3D or addictive printing is gradually taking shape in India. In 2016, HP Inc unveiled the worlds first production-ready commercial 3D printing system to bring disruptive manufacturing solutions to markets.

With partners such as Nike, BMW, and others, HP has taken a major step in reinventing the prototyping and manufacturing industry with the first commercial 3D printers based on the open platform.

The HP Jet Fusion 3D Printing Solution will deliver superior quality physical parts up to 10 times faster and at half the cost of current 3D print systems, Chandra said. As such, the HP Jet Fusion 3D Printing Solution offers simplified workflow and reduced cost for radical prototyping, delivery of final parts manufacturing with breakthrough economics.

In a bid to accelerate 3D printing for industrial production, HP Inc also recently announced the integration of its Multi Jet Fusion 3D printer with Siemens Additive Manufacturing (AM) software module. HP has further announced the expansion of its 3D-printing portfolio with HP Multi Jet Fusion 4210 platform.

With the recovery of the Indian PC market, HP Inc maintained its leadership position in the overall traditional PC market with 31.1 percent share in the third quarter this year. HP Inc recorded a healthy 30.2 percent growth (year-on-year) owing to a state-owned education project along with strong consumer demand, said global market research firm IDC.

Its a proud moment for HP to have consistently sustained market leadership in the personal computing industry. We are at an exciting juncture in our journey as we reinvent ourselves on the basis of design, innovation and customer value, Chandra said.

PCs are not going anywhere. Smartphones have their relevance but to generate content, people will have to come to PCs and laptops, the top HP India executive said, adding that going forward, the company will plan more investments towards manufacturing in the country.

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Story first published: Friday, December 8, 2017, 16:15 [IST]

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